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Luis Rey Ballesteros Luiroi. Julio Torres. A ver Login to enter a peer comment or grade. The sacred text of Islam, considered by Muslims to contain the revelations of God to Muhammad. Also called Alcoran. Revealed by God to the Prophet Muhammad in separate revelations over the major portion of the Prophet's life at Mecca and at Medina, the Qur'an was intended as a recited text, and was not compiled as a single volume during the life of the Prophet.
The establishment of the canonical text is attributed to the 3d caliph, Uthman, who appointed a committee —52 to reconcile the conflicting versions then available, under the direction of Zaid ibn Thabit, one of the Prophet's scribes.
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The internal organization of the Qur'an is somewhat ad hoc. Revelations consisted of verses ayat grouped into chapters suras. The rest are graded generally by length, from longest to shortest. It is thus impossible to tell from the book the chronological order of revelations; generally, however, the shorter suras, more electric and fervent than the rest, are the earlier, while many of the longer ones and all of those revealed at Medina are later.
The Qur'an refers to religious and historical events but seldom provides comprehensive accounts. Its focus is their significance, rather than their narration. God in the Qur'an speaks in the first person. Tafsir, Qur'anic exegesis, initially emerged as a branch of the science of Hadith, in the attempt to gather Muhammad's elucidations of obscure Qur'anic passages, then developed into a separate discipline with the introduction of etymological and literary analysis tools.
Being the verbatim Word of God, the text of the Qur'an is valid for religious purposes only in its original Arabic, cannot be modified, and is not translatable, although the necessity for non-Arabic interpretations is recognized. This has made the Qur'an the most read book in its original language and preserved a classical form of Arabic as an Islamic lingua franca and medium of learning. Bibliography See A.
Arberry, The Qur'an Interpreted 2 vol. Toshihiko, God and Man in the Koran ; R. Bell, Introduction to the Koran 2d ed. Cragg, The Event of the Koran Muslims believe that the Qur'an is the literal word of God and the culmination of God's revelation to mankind, revealed to the Prophet Muhammad over a period of 23 years by the Angel Jibreel Gabriel.
Format of the Qur'an The Qur'an consists of suras chapters with a total of 6, ayat verses; the exact number of ayat is disputed, not due to content dispute but due to different methods of counting; the sect founded by Rashad Khalifa claims the exact number is 6, Muslims usually refer to the suras not by their numbers, but by an Arabic name derived in some way from the sura. See List of sura names. The suras are not arranged in chronological order in the order in which Islamic scholars believe they were revealed but in a different order, roughly by size, also believed by Muslims to be divinely inspired.
After a short opening, the Qur'an proceeds to the longest sura, and closes with some of the shortest ones. The Qur'an as divided for reading and recitation In addition to and largely independent of the division into suras, there are various ways of dividing the Qur'an into parts of approximately equal length for convenience in reading, reciting and memorizing.
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A juz' is sometimes further divided into two ahzab groups , and each hizb is in turn subdivided into four quarters. A different structure is provided by the ruku'at, semantical units resembling paragraphs and comprising roughly ten ayat each. The language of the Qur'an The Qur'an is one of the first written works in Arabic. There are few other examples of Arabic from that time. The Mu'allaqat, or Suspended Odes, are believed by some to be examples of pre-Islamic Arabic; others say that they were created after Muhammad.
Only five pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions survive. Arab rulers had millions of foreign subjects, with whom they had to communicate. The language rapidly changed in response to this new situation, losing complexities of case and obscure vocabulary. Several generations after the prophet's death, many words used in the Qur'an had become opaque to ordinary sedentary Arabic-speakers, as Arabic had changed so much, so rapidly.
The Bedouin speech changed at a considerably slower rate, however, and early Arabic lexicographers came to seek out Bedouin to explain difficult words or elucidate points of grammar. Partly in response to the religious need to explain the Qur'an to poorer speakers, Arabic grammar and lexicography soon became important sciences, and the model for the literary language remains to this day the speech used in Qur'anic times, rather than the current spoken dialects.
Muslims contend that the Qur'an is remarkable for its poetry and grace, and that its very literary perfection is proof of its divine origin. Translations are considered mere glosses. The traditions governing the translation and publication of the Qur'an state that when the book is published, it must never simply be entitled "The Qur'an. Every reputable Islamic scholar should be able to read and understand the Qur'an in its original form.
Many Muslims who do not otherwise understand Arabic memorize the whole text in Arabic, considering that they are closer to God in doing so. Stylistic attributes The Qur'an mixes narrative, exhortation, and legal prescription. The suras frequently combine all these modes, not always in ways that seem sensible or obvious to the non-Muslim reader. There are many repeated epithets e. Muslim scholars explain these repetitions as emphasizing and pointing up different aspects of important themes. The Qur'an is partly rhymed, partly prose. Traditionally, the Arabic grammarians consider the Qur'an to be a genre unique unto itself, neither poetry defined as speech with metre and rhyme nor prose defined as normal speech or rhymed but non-metrical speech, saj'.
Note that verse-final vowels are unpronounced when the verses are enunciated separately, a regular pausal phenomenon in classical Arabic. Some suras also include a refrain repeated every few verses, for instance ar-Rahman "Then which of the favours of your Lord will ye deny? In general, the earlier Makkan suras tend to have shorter verses than the later Madinan suras, with legal verses being particularly long.
Contrast the Makkan verses above with a verse such as al-Baqara Divorce must be pronounced twice and then a woman must be retained in honour or released in kindness. And it is not lawful for you that ye take from women aught of that which ye have given them; except in the case when both fear that they may not be able to keep within the limits imposed by Allah. And if ye fear that they may not be able to keep the limits of Allah, in that case it is no sin for either of them if the woman ransom herself.
These are the limits imposed by Allah. Transgress them not. For whoso transgresseth Allah's limits: such are wrong-doers. Similarly, the Madinan suras tend to be longer, including the longest sura of the Qur'an, al-Baqara. A mention of the mercy of thy Lord unto His servant Zachariah. However, they have observed that in all but 4 of the 29 cases, these letters are almost immediately followed by mention of the Qur'anic revelation itself.
Western scholars' efforts have been tentative; one proposal, for instance, was that they were initials or monograms of the scribes that had originally written the sura down. See Qur'anic initial letters for a fuller discussion.
The temporal order of Quranic verses Belief in the Qur'an's direct, uncorrupted divine origin is considered fundamental to Islam by most Muslims. This of course entails believing that the Qur'an has neither errors nor inconsistencies. However, there are instances where some verses presuppose that a given practice is allowed, while others forbid it.
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These are interpreted by Muslims in the light of the relative chronology of the verses: since the Qur'an was revealed over a course of 23 years, many verses were clarified or abrogated by later verses. Muslim commentators explain that this is because Muhammad was directed to gradually lead his small band of believers towards the straight path, rather than reveal the full rigor of the law at once. For example, the prohibition of alcohol was accomplished gradually rather than immediately. The earliest verse tells the believers to "Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understand all that ye say, Later verses expanded prohibition to all alcohol consumption: "They ask thee concerning wine and gambling, say: "In them is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit El Zakat al-fitr es un impuesto personal, es decir, un impuesto sobre el individuo en el que la cantidad de riqueza que posea no entra en juego.
Es importante mencionar que el pago del Zakat por la riqueza no exime de pagar el Zakat al-fitr, y el pago del Zakat al-fitr no exime de pagar el Zakat por la riqueza acumulada. Brindar el zakat es un acto de agradecimiento, puesto que sin agradecimiento no hay entrega ni beneficio divino: no hay modo de disfrute digno y liberador. Sura an-Nur , aleya You must be logged in to post a comment. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.
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